THE FIRST MULTIPARTY ELECTIONS OF 1990
The first direct, multiparty elections to take place since the war were held on 8 April 1990 when Slovenes voted for a President of the Presidency of the Republic of Slovenia (four candidates), for the four members of the Presidency (twelve candidates from several parties and from the united opposition), for delegates to the Sociopolitical Chamber of the Assembly (fourteen parties proposed candidates) and for the delegates to the Chamber of Communes of the Assembly. Elections for delegates to the Chamber of Associated Labour were held on 12 April 1990.
Along with the election of the President, the most important part of the elections was for the Sociopolitical Chamber of Slovenia, which saw 1,238,000 votes cast, of which 1,128,000 were valid votes.
At the first multiparty elections held on 8 April 1990 the following parties (successors of earlier parties as well as newly-formed parties) entered parliament.
1. ZKS - Party of Democratic Renewal (17.28%). This party later became the ZLSD (Associated List of Social Democrats);
2. ZSMS - Liberal Party (14.49%), became the LDS after merging with the Socialist Party and the Greens;
3. SKD - Slovenian Christian Democrats (12.98%), the strongest party in Demos. After merging with the SLS part of the SKD leadership formed the new party NSi;
4. SKZ - Slovenian Farmers' Alliance (12.55%), later became the SLS;
5. Slovenian Democratic Alliance - SDZ (9.51%). This party transformed to become the Democratic Party (DS), which partly joined the LDS and partly continued as an independent party but failed to enter parliament at the next elections;
6. Greens of Slovenia (8.84%). Later joined the LDS;
7. SDZS - Social Democratic Alliance of Slovenia (7.39%).Later joined the LDS;
8. SZDL - Socialist Party of Slovenia (5.37%). Failed to enter parliament at the next elections and later joined the LDS;
9. SOPS - Slovenian Craftsmen and Entrepreneurs Party (3.54%).
All the other parties and lists captured less than 2.5% of the vote and, under the electoral law, were not allowed a seat in the Sociopolitical Chamber.
Distribution of seats in the Sociopolitical Chamber
At the democratic elections to the Slovenian Assembly in April 1990 almost 55% of the vote went to the DEMOS coalition of newly-formed political parties. The remaining votes went to the three parties considered "heirs" to the previous system, even though they too had declared themselves in favour of a market economy and political democracy (the League of Communists of Slovenia received 17% of the vote; the Socialist Youth Party that took the name Liberal Democratic Party on the eve of the elections gained 14%; and the Socialist Party which emerged from the former League of Socialists took 5.5%).
There were 80 seats in the Sociopolitical Chamber. DEMOS, the electoral coalition of seven parties, obtained an absolute majority with 47 seats; the ZKS-PDR won 14 seats, the ZSMS- LP 12, and the SZDL-SA five seats, while two seats in the Sociopolitical Chamber were reserved for the representatives of the two ethnic communities in Slovenia (Italian and Hungarian).
In all, DEMOS obtained 126 of the 240 seats in parliament. The opposition was made up of the Party of Democratic Renewal (former Communists), the Liberal Democratic Party, the Socialist Party of Slovenia and independent delegates.
The DEMOS government was formed by Lojze Peterle, the president of the strongest coalition party, the Slovenian Christian Democrats. The most important ministries entrusted with organising Slovenia's independence process were allocated to members of the Slovenian Democratic Party: Dr Dimitrij Rupel (Foreign Minister), Janez Janša (Defence) and Igor Bavčar (Internal Affairs).
The New Government
The new Slovenian government (a coalition of SKD, SLS, DS, ZS and LS) was elected at a joint session of all three chambers on 16 May 1990 and Lojze Peterle, president of the Slovenian Christian Democrats, became Prime Minister.
The new leadership was elected on 9 May 1990 at a joint session of all three chambers of the Assembly. Dr France Bučar (SDZ) was elected president.
The 1990 elections were in fact a transitional phase leading to the real democratic elections of 6 December 1992, by which time Slovenia had already gained its independence.